Posts tagged Legislation.
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On May 17, 2024, Colorado became the first U.S. state to enact comprehensive artificial intelligence legislation. This blog entry provides highlights of the key requirements.

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The Maryland legislature recently passed the Maryland Online Data Privacy Act of 2024 (“MODPA”), which was delivered to Governor Wes Moore for signature and, if enacted, will impose robust requirements with respect to data minimization, the protection of sensitive data, and the processing and sale of minors’ data.

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On April 7, 2024, U.S. Sen. Maria Cantwell (D-WA) and U.S. Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA) released a discussion draft of the latest federal privacy proposal, known as American Privacy Rights Act (“APRA” or the “Act”). The APRA builds upon the American Data Privacy and Protection Act (“ADPPA”), which was introduced as H.R. 8152 in the 117th Congress and advanced out of the House Energy and Commerce Committee but did not become law. As the latest iteration of a federal privacy proposal, the APRA signals that some members of Congress continue to seek to create a federal standard in the wake of—and in spite of—the ever-growing patchwork of state privacy laws.

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On April 9, 2024, Representatives Tim Walberg (R-MI) and Kathy Castor (D-FL) introduced the Children and Teens’ Online Privacy Protection Act (“COPPA 2.0.”) The bill serves as a companion to the Senate bill by the same name.

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On March 19, 2024, Utah’s Governor Spencer J. Cox signed Senate Bill (SB) 98 (the “Bill”), Online Data Security and Privacy Amendments, into law. The Bill amends the Protection of Personal Information Act (§13-44-101 et seq) and the Utah Technology Governance Act in the Utah Government Operations Code (§63A-16-1101 et seq). The Utah Technology Governance Act had previously established the Utah Cyber Center, a state initiative to coordinate efforts between local, state and federal resources by sharing threat intelligence and best practices.

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On March 1, 2024, the Virginia legislature passed S.B. 361 (the “Bill”), which amends the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act to introduce new protections for children’s privacy. If signed by the Virginia Governor, the new children’s privacy protections will go into effect on January 1, 2025.

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On March 13, 2024, the European Parliament adopted the AI Act by a majority of 523 votes in favor, 46 votes against, and 49 abstentions. The AI Act will introduce comprehensive rules to govern the use of AI in the EU, making it the first major economic bloc to regulate this technology.

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On February 15, 2024, the Federal Trade Commission proposed a rule that would ban the use of AI to impersonate individuals, which would extend protections of a recently finalized FTC rule against government and business impersonation.  The FTC announced a public comment period for a supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (“NPR”) regarding the proposed rule that ends 60 days after being published in the Federal Register. The FTC’s swift action is in response to an AI-generated robocall mimicking President Biden that encouraged voters not to vote in the New Hampshire primary. FTC Chair Lina Khan described the FTC’s supplemental NPR as a key step in “strengthening the FTC’s toolkit to address AI-enabled scams impersonating individuals,” as malicious actors “us[e] AI tools to impersonate individuals with eerie precision and at a much wider scale.”

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On February 12, 2024, California bill AB-1949 was referred to the Assembly Committee on Privacy and Consumer Protection. The bill would amend the California Consumer Privacy Act (as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act) (the “CCPA”) to significantly expand businesses’ obligations with respect to the personal information of consumers under the age of 18.

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On February 15, 2024, Senators Edward J. Markey (D-Mass.) and Bill Cassidy (R-La.) announced the addition of co-sponsors Senators Ted Cruz (R-Texas) Chair and Ranking Member of the Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, and Maria Cantwell (D-Wash.) to an updated version of the proposed Children and Teens’ Online Privacy Protection Act (“COPPA 2.0”) bill. The bill contains what the sponsors call “small modifications based on conversations with stakeholders and additional technical corrections.”

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On February 9, 2024, a California state court of appeal ruled in favor of the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) and vacated the lower court order postponing enforcement of the CPPA’s final regulations under the California Consumer Privacy Act.

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On January 22, 2024, a draft of the final text of the EU Artificial Intelligence Act (“AI Act”) was leaked to the public. The leaked text substantially diverges from the original proposal by the European Commission, which dates back to 2021. The AI Act includes elements from both the European Parliament’s and the Council’s proposals.

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On November 22, 2023, the Artificial Intelligence (Regulation) Bill was introduced into the UK Parliament’s House of Lords. The purpose of the Bill is to make provision for the regulation of AI and for connected purposes. 

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On September 21, 2023, UK Secretary of State for Science, Innovation and Technology Michelle Donelan laid regulations in the UK Parliament, giving effect to a UK-U.S. Data Bridge. The regulations are supported by several documents, including a fact sheet and an “explainer.”  The regulations are due to take effect on October 12, 2023. U.S. companies approved to join the “UK Extension to the EU-US Data Privacy Framework” will be able to receive UK personal data under the new Data Bridge.

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On September 18, 2023, Judge Beth Labson Freeman of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California granted NetChoice’s request for preliminary injunction in NetChoice v. Bonta, finding that NetChoice is likely to succeed on its claim that the California Age-Appropriate Design Code (“CA AADC”) violates the First Amendment. Specifically, the Court found that, as a speech restriction, the CA AADC would likely fail both strict scrutiny and a lesser standard of scrutiny. The preliminary injunction blocks the CA AADC from going into effect until the case is ...

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On August 31, 2023, NetChoice, a national trade association of large online businesses, filed supplemental briefing in its challenge to the California Age-Appropriate Design Code (“CA AADC”). The success or failure of NetChoice’s lawsuit will determine whether companies need to be CA AADC-compliant on July 1, 2024 when the law is anticipated to take effect.

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Stephen Mathias from Kochhar & Co. reports that in early August 2023, the Indian Parliament passed the Digital Personal Data Protection Act (the “Act”), bringing to a close a 5-year process to enact an omnibus data privacy law in India. The Act was ratified by the President of India and will come into effect once notified by the Government. The Act significantly updates a previous draft, and departs substantially from the GDPR model of privacy laws.

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On August 9, 2023, India’s upper house (i.e., Rajya Sabha) passed the Digital Personal Data Protection Bill (“DPDPB”), two days after India’s lower house (i.e., Lok Sabha) passed the legislation. The DPDPB now heads to India President Droupadi Murmu for signature.

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On June 30, 2023, the Delaware House of Representatives passed the Delaware Personal Data Privacy Act (H.B. 154) (the “DPDPA”), a day after the Delaware Senate passed the legislation. The DPDPA heads to Governor John Carney for a final signature. This could make Delaware the 13th U.S. state to enact comprehensive privacy legislation.

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Pablo A. Palazzi from Allende & Brea in Argentina reports that on June 30, 2023, the Argentine Executive Branch sent the new proposed Personal Data Protection Bill (the “Bill”) to the National Congress for consideration. The Bill was drafted by the Argentine Data Protection Authority (Agencia de Acceso a la Información Pública, or “AAIP”) and seeks to amend the current Personal Data Protection Act (Law No. 25,326 of 2000).

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On June 22, 2023, the Oregon House of Representatives passed the Oregon Consumer Privacy Act (S.B. 619) (the “OCPA”), which was previously passed by the Oregon Senate on June 20, 2023. The OCPA has been sent to the Oregon governor’s desk for signature. If signed, the OCPA would make Oregon the 12th state to have enacted comprehensive privacy legislation.

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On June 29, 2023, the Superior Court of California for the County of Sacramento issued a Tentative Ruling providing for a postponement of enforcement of final CPRA regulations for 12 months after the regulations were finalized (i.e., March 29, 2024). Tentative Rulings are posted by a court the day before a writ or motion is noticed for a hearing and state how the court intends to rule on the motion based on the papers filed by the parties. The ruling may change based on oral argument.  The hearing on the Petition for Writ of Mandate for the CPRA regulations was noticed for June 30, 2023 at ...

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On June 2 and June 5, 2023, the Connecticut and Nevada state legislatures, respectively, voted in favor of sending legislation to their governors for signature that would impose restrictions, among others, on the processing of consumer health data, including geofencing provisions.  Nevada S.B. 370 was signed by Nevada Governor Joe Lombardo on June 16, 2023. These bills contain provisions similar to Washington’s My Health My Data Act and expand on protections in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and other privacy laws.

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On May 4, 2023, the Florida Senate and House of Representatives voted in favor of sending the Florida Digital Bill of Rights (“FDBR”) and other amendments related to government moderation of social media and protection of children in online spaces (S.B. 262) to Governor Ron DeSantis for signature. Unlike the other comprehensive state privacy laws that have been enacted, the FDBR applies to a much narrower subset of entities.

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On May 10, 2023, the Texas Senate passed H.B. 4, also known as the Texas Data Privacy and Security Act (“TDPSA”). The TDPSA now heads to a conference committee between the Texas Senate and House to rectify the differences between the Senate and House versions. If the TDPSA is signed into law, Texas could become the tenth state to enact comprehensive privacy legislation.

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On May 4, 2023, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) Board announced that it will hold a public meeting on May 15, 2023 to discuss California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”) regulations proposals and priorities, and other CPPA activities.

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On April 21, 2023, the Montana and Tennessee legislatures voted to enact comprehensive consumer privacy bills in their respective states. If signed by their governors, Montana’s Consumer Data Privacy Act (S.B. 384) (“MCDPA”) and Tennessee’s Information Protection Act (H.B. 1181) (“TIPA”) could make these states the eighth and ninth U.S. states to enact comprehensive privacy legislation.

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On April 6, 2023, the New York City Department of Consumer and Worker Protection ("DCWP") announced it adopted final rules to implement NYC’s Local Law 144 (“LL 144”) regarding automated employment decision tools (“AEDTs”). Enforcement of the law and the rules will begin on July 5, 2023.

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On April 12, 2023, Arkansas Governor Sarah Huckabee Sanders signed into law S.B. 396 creating the state’s Social Media Safety Act (the “Act”). The Act comes after Utah’s similar social media laws enacted in March.

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On March 30, 2023, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) announced that California’s Office of Administrative Law (“OAL”) approved the CPPA’s substantive rulemaking package to implement the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”).

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On March 29, 2023, the UK government published a white paper on artificial intelligence (“AI”) entitled “A pro-innovation approach to AI regulation.” The white paper sets out a new “flexible” approach to regulating artificial intelligence which is intended to build public trust in AI and make it easier for businesses to grow and create jobs. 

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On March 15, 2023, the Colorado Attorney General’s Office finalized rules implementing the Colorado Privacy Act (“CPA”). The finalized rules were released with an official redline that reflects prior revisions of the rules dated December 21, 2022, January 27, 2023, and February 23, 2023. The rules will be published in the Colorado Register later this month and will go into effect on July 1, 2023, when the CPA takes effect.

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On March 6 and 15, 2023, both chambers of the Iowa Legislature unanimously voted to approve Senate File 262, which could make Iowa the sixth U.S. state to enact comprehensive privacy legislation. The bill is most similar to Utah’s comprehensive privacy law.

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On March 1-3, 2023, the Utah legislature passed a series of bills, SB 152 and HB 311, regarding social media usage for minors. For social media companies with more than five million users worldwide, SB 152 would require parental permission for social media accounts for users under age 18, while HB 311 would hold social media companies liable for harm minors experience on the platforms. Both bills have been sent to the governor’s desk for signature.

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On March 3, 2023, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) Board held a public meeting regarding the Agency’s priorities, budget, the status of the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”) rulemaking process and the activities of the CPPA subcommittees. The meeting focused on the following topics:

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On March 1, 2023, the U.S. House of Representatives Innovation, Data and Commerce Subcommittee (“Subcommittee”) of the Energy and Commerce Committee (“Committee”) held a hearing to restart the discussion on comprehensive federal privacy legislation. Last year, the full Committee reached bipartisan consensus on H.R. 8152, the American Data Privacy and Protection Act (“ADPPA”), by a vote of 53-2.  With many of the same players returning in the 118th Congress, House members are eager to advance bipartisan legislation again.

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On February 28, 2023, the Colorado Office of the Attorney General announced that revised draft Colorado Privacy Act (“CPA”) rules were adopted for review by the Colorado Attorney General prior to finalization and publication in the Colorado Register.

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On February 21, 2023, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) Board announced that it will hold a public meeting on March 3, 2023 regarding the status of the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”) rulemaking process and the activities of CPPA subcommittees.

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On February 14, 2023, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) announced that it had filed its first substantive rulemaking package for the proposed final draft California Privacy Act of 2020 (“CPRA”) regulations with California’s Office of Administrative Law (“OAL”), beginning a 30-day review period.

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On February 14, 2023, the U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary held a hearing titled, “Protecting Our Children Online.” Chaired by Sen. Durbin, the hearing examined the potentially harmful effects of social media use on young people, and represented a renewal of the Committee’s efforts to pass legislation to protect children and teenagers online. In 2022, the Senate Judiciary Committee approved several bills designed to enhance the online safety and wellbeing of children and teenagers, among them the Kids Online Protection Act (“KOSA”), but the bills did not receive a floor vote. During the hearing, Democratic and Republican senators expressed their commitment to pass bills that would limit the immunity of social media companies under Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, and would require website and app developers to design products that protect young people from cyberbullying, online sexual exploitation, social media addiction, and other harms. 

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On February 10, 2023, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) issued an Invitation for Preliminary Comments on Proposed Rulemaking on cybersecurity audits, risk assessments and automated decisionmaking, topics that have not yet been addressed by the existing final draft CPRA Regulations.

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On February 6, 2023, Texas State Representative Giovanni Capriglione submitted H.B. 1844, a comprehensive privacy bill modeled after the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (“VCDPA”). The bill could make Texas the sixth U.S. state to enact major privacy legislation, following California, Virginia, Colorado, Utah, and Connecticut. Although the bill closely follows the VCDPA, it departs from the Virginia law in several key areas, most notably in the definition of “personal data” and its applicability.

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On January 23, 2023, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) Board announced that it will hold a public meeting on February 3, 2023 regarding the status of the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”) rulemaking process, particularly with respect to the issuance of new draft rules on risk assessments, cybersecurity audits and automated decisionmaking.

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On January 20, 2023, The Centre for Information Policy Leadership (“CIPL”) at Hunton Andrews Kurth published “Digital Assets and Privacy,” a discussion paper compiling insights from workshops with CIPL member companies that explored the intersection of privacy and digital assets, with a particular focus on blockchain technology. The paper includes recommendations for developing coherent, tech-friendly, future-focused, and pragmatic regulations and policies.

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On December 16, 2022, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) Board held a public meeting regarding the status of the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”) rulemaking process and other topics, such as the CPPA’s advocacy regarding proposed federal and state privacy legislation.

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On December 6, 2022, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) announced that it will hold a virtual public meeting to discuss the status of the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”) rulemaking process and other topics. Anticipated topics for discussion include:

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On November 22, 2022, the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”) determined in a preliminary ruling that the general public’s access to information on beneficial ownership constitutes a serious interference with the fundamental rights to respect for private life and to the protection of personal data, enshrined in Articles 7 and 8 of the Charter of Fundamental Human Rights (the “Charter”).

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On November 21, 2022, the Centre for Information Policy Leadership (“CIPL”) at Hunton Andrews Kurth filed comments on the Federal Trade Commission’s Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (“ANPR”) on commercial surveillance and data security. The ANPR sought public comment on, among other things, whether the FTC should implement new rules addressing the ways in which companies collect, aggregate, protect, use, analyze and retain consumer data.

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On November 23, 2022, the UK government’s Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport (“DCMS”) announced that it had completed its assessment of South Korea’s personal data legislation, and concluded that sufficiently strong privacy laws are in place to protect UK personal data transferred to South Korea while upholding the rights and protections of UK citizens.

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Kochhar & Co. reports that, on November 18, 2022, the Government of India (“Government”) released the long-awaited fourth draft of India’s proposed privacy law, now renamed the Digital Personal Data Protection Bill.

Terms and Application

The draft law uses terminology similar to past versions: the data controller is called the “data fiduciary,” the data subject is called the “data principal,” and personal information is referred to as “personal data.” There is no separate category of sensitive personal data.   

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On October 24, 2022, the New York City Department of Consumer and Worker Protection (“DCWP”) proposed rules to implement its new law regarding automated employment decision tools (“AEDTs”).

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On September 23, 2022, New York State Senator Andrew Gounardes introduced S9563, also known as the “New York Child Data Privacy and Protection Act.” The bill, which resembles the recently passed California Age-Appropriate Design Code Act, bans certain data collection and targeted advertising and requires data controllers to, among other obligations, assess the impact of their products on children.

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On October 14, 2022, the Federal Trade Commission announced it is extending the deadline by one month to submit comments on its Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (“ANPR”) on commercial surveillance and lax data security practices.

The FTC launched the ANPR in August and has sought public comment on it, including through a virtual public forum held in September.

Comments now must be filed by November 21, 2022.

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On October 21 and October 22, 2022, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) Board will hold public meetings to discuss and take possible action, including adoption or modification of proposed regulations, to “implement, interpret, and make specific” the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 .

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On September 15, 2022, California Governor Gavin Newsom signed into law the California Age-Appropriate Design Code Act (the “Act”). The Act, which takes effect July 1, 2024, places new legal obligations on companies with respect to online products and services that are “likely to be accessed by children” under the age of 18.

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On September 6, 2022, the California legislature presented Assembly Bill 2392 to Governor Gavin Newsom. AB-2392, which has not yet been signed by Governor Newsom, would allow Internet-connected device manufacturers to satisfy existing device labeling requirements by complying with National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) standards for consumer Internet of Things (“IoT”) products.

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On September 8, 2022, the Federal Trade Commission hosted a virtual public forum on its Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (“ANPR”) concerning “commercial surveillance and lax data security.” The forum featured remarks from FTC Chair Lina Kahn, Commissioner Rebecca Kelly Slaughter and Commissioner Alvaro Bedoya, as well as panels with industry leaders and consumer advocates.

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Editor’s Note: The California legislature failed to enact the proposed CCPA exemption amendments to Assembly Bill 1102.

On August 16, 2022, California Assembly Member Cooley introduced amendments to Assembly Bill 1102 that would extend the California Consumer Privacy Act’s (“CCPA’s”) temporary exemptions for HR and B2B data for an additional two years – until January 1, 2025. Under the CCPA, these exemptions are set to expire on January 1, 2023, when the amendments to the CCPA made by the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”) become operative.

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On August 11, 2022, the Federal Trade Commission announced it is seeking public comment regarding its advance notice of proposed rulemaking (“ANPR”) on commercial surveillance and data security, on which we previously reported. The FTC defines “commercial surveillance” as the business of collecting, analyzing and profiting from consumer data.

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In July 2022, Maria Ostashenko from ALRUD Law Firm reports that the Russian Parliament passed, and the President of the Russian Federation signed into law, major reforms in data protection and information governance. The reforms include:

  • Significant changes to Federal Law No. 152-FZ on Personal Data, including the scope of its application, new rules for cross-border transfer of personal data, data breach notifications, and additional protections for data subjects;
  • New amendments to the Unified Biometric System regulations;
  • Establishment of a countersanction-information ...
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Stephen Mathias from Kochhar & Co. reports that, on August 3, 2022, the Government of India withdrew the Indian Data Protection Bill (the “Bill”) that was pending before the Indian Parliament. As we previously reported, the Bill was expected to be tabled during the Monsoon session of Parliament, which commenced on July 18, 2022. While the Government was contemplating making certain changes to the existing Bill, it is now considering drafting fresh legislation, including a bill that addresses a broader range of issues in the digital ecosystem beyond data protection alone.

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On July 28, 2022, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) Board held a special public meeting to discuss agency staff’s recommendations that the Board formally oppose the draft federal American Data Privacy and Protection Act (“ADPPA”). The latest version of the ADPPA recently was voted out of the U.S. House Energy and Commerce Committee, and is set to advance to the House Floor.

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On July 28, 2022, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) Board will hold a remote, special public meeting at 9AM PDT to discuss possible action on proposed federal privacy legislation, including the American Data Privacy and Protection Act (“ADPPA”), according to the Board’s publicly released agenda.

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On July 20, 2022, the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce (the “Committee”) passed H.R. 8152, the American Data Privacy and Protection Act (“ADPPA”) (as amended), by a vote of 53-2. The ADPPA next will be put before the full House for a vote.

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On June 23, 2022, the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Consumer Protection and Commerce passed by voice vote H.R. 8152, the American Data Privacy and Protection Act (“ADPPA”). This bipartisan legislation, sponsored by House Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman Frank Pallone (D-NJ), committee Ranking Republican Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), subcommittee Chairman Jan Schakowsky (D-IL) and subcommittee Ranking Republican Gus Bilirakis (R-FL), is based on the bipartisan, bicameral “Three Corners” draft bill released on June 2, 2022 with the support of Pallone, Rodgers and Senate Commerce Committee Ranking Republican Roger Wicker (R-MS). 

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On May 29, 2022, the Maryland legislature enacted House Bill 962, which amends Maryland’s Personal Information Protection Act (the “Act”). The amendments update and clarify various aspects of the Act, including, but not limited to, the timeframe for reporting a data breach affected individuals, and content requirements for providing notice to the Maryland Attorney General.

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On June 16, 2022, Industry Minister François-Philippe Champagne and Justice Minister David Lametti introduced the Digital Charter Implementation Act, 2022 (Bill C-27), a bill that would overhaul Canada’s existing legal framework for personal information protection in the private sector. In the Canadian government’s news release, Industry Minister Champagne stated that Bill C-27, if enacted, will “give businesses clear rules to support their efforts to innovate with data and will introduce a new regulatory framework for the responsible development of artificial intelligence systems, while recognizing the need to protect young people and their information.” Bill C-27 is similar to former Bill C-11, which died in the 2021 legislative session. 

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On June 3, 2022, House Energy and Commerce Chair Rep. Frank Pallone (D-NJ), Ranking Member Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA) and Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee Ranking Member Sen. Roger Wicker (R-MS) released a new comprehensive federal privacy bill, the American Data Privacy and Protection Act (“ADPPA”).

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On May 27, 2022, Vermont Governor Phil Scott signed H.515, making Vermont the twenty-first state to enact legislation based on the National Association of Insurance Commissioners Insurance Data Security Model Law (“MDL-668”). The Vermont Insurance Data Security Law applies to “licensees”—those licensed, authorized to operate or registered, and those required to be licensed, authorized or registered, under Vermont insurance law, with few exceptions. The new law generally follows MDL-668’s provisions, adopting the model law’s broad definition of nonpublic information and requiring licensees to, in part, maintain a written information security program (“WISP”) and investigate cybersecurity incidents. Unlike other state laws based on MDL-668, however, the Vermont Insurance Data Security Law declines to establish separate cybersecurity event notification requirements for licensees.

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As reported in the Hunton Employment & Labor Perspectives Blog:

Assembly Bill 1651, or the Workplace Technology Accountability Act, a new bill proposed by California Assembly Member Ash Kalra, would regulate employers and their vendors regarding the use of employee data. Under the bill, data is defined as “any information that identifies, relates to, describes, is reasonably capable of being associated with, or could reasonably be linked, directly or indirectly, with a particular worker, regardless of how the information is collected, inferred, or obtained.”  Examples of data include personal identity information; biometric information; health, medical, lifestyle, and wellness information; any data related to workplace activities; and online information. The bill confers certain data rights on employees, including the right to access and correct their data. 

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On May 10, 2022, Connecticut Governor Ned Lamont signed An Act Concerning Personal Data Privacy and Online Monitoring, after the law was previously passed by the Connecticut General Assembly in April. Connecticut is now the fifth state to enact a consumer privacy law.

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In April 2022, two states enacted insurance data security legislation based on the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) Insurance Data Security Model Law (MDL-668). Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear signed HB 474 into law on April 8, 2022, and Maryland Governor Larry Hogan signed SB 207 into law on April 21, 2022. The new laws establish data security obligations for insurance carriers and generally require carriers to take the following actions, subject to certain exemptions:
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On April 23, 2022, the European Commission announced that the European Parliament and EU Member States had reached consensus on the Digital Services Act (“DSA”), which establishes accountability standards for online platforms regarding illegal and harmful content.

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On April 5, 2022, North Carolina became the first state in the U.S. to prohibit state agencies and local government entities from paying a ransom following a ransomware attack.

North Carolina’s new law, which was passed as part of the state’s 2021-2022 budget appropriations, prohibits government entities from paying a ransom to an attacker who has encrypted their IT systems and subsequently offers to decrypt that data in exchange for payment. The law prohibits government entities from even communicating with the attacker, instead directing them to report the ransomware attack to the North Carolina Department of Information Technology in accordance with G.S. 143B‑1379.

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On April 19, 2022, the California state legislature and an industry self-regulatory group each separately took steps to enhance online privacy protections for children who are not covered by the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (“COPPA”), which applies only to personal information collected online from children under the age of 13.

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On April 11, 2022, Virginia Governor Glenn Youngkin signed into law three bills that amend the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (“VCDPA”) ahead of the VCDPA’s January 1, 2023 effective date. The bills, HB 381, HB 714 and SB 534, (1) add a new exemption to the VCDPA’s right to delete; (2) modify the VCDPA’s definition of “nonprofit”; and (3) abolish the Consumer Privacy Fund.

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On April 11, 2022, Federal Trade Commission Chair Lina Khan spoke at the opening of the International Association of Privacy Professionals’ Global Privacy Summit. This speech marks Khan’s first major privacy address since her appointment last June.

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On March 24, 2022, Utah became the fourth state in the U.S., following California, Virginia and Colorado, to enact a consumer data privacy law, the Utah Consumer Privacy Act (the “UCPA”). The UCPA resembles Virginia’s Consumer Data Protection Act (“VCDPA”) and Colorado’s Consumer Privacy Act (“CPA”), and, to a lesser extent, the California Consumer Privacy Act (as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act) (“CCPA/CPRA”). The UCPA will take effect on December 31, 2023.

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On March 10, 2022, in its first formal written opinion interpreting the California Consumer Privacy Act’s (“CCPA’s”) compliance obligations, the California Attorney General (“AG”) confirmed that the CCPA grants a consumer the right to access inferences drawn from personal information collected about the consumer, even if such inferences are generated by the business (unless the business can demonstrate that a statutory exception to the CCPA applies). The opinion also makes clear that the CCPA does not require businesses to disclose trade secrets in response to access requests. The decision interprets the CCPA’s existing language, as opposed to creating new obligations with respect to access requests made pursuant to the CCPA.

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On March 9, 2022, the Biden Administration released its much-anticipated “Executive Order on Ensuring Responsible Development of Digital Assets” (“Executive Order”). The White House describes the Executive Order as the “first whole-of-government strategy” on digital assets and attempts to strike a balance between encouraging innovation and U.S. leadership in the digital asset space, while signaling an appetite to protect against a variety of stated risks through additional regulation and legislation.

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On March 11, 2022, the U.S. Senate passed an omnibus spending bill that includes language which would require certain critical infrastructure owners and operators to notify the federal government of cybersecurity incidents in specified circumstances. The bill  previously was passed by the House of Representatives on March 9, 2022. President Biden is expected to sign the bill and has until March 15, 2022, to do so before the current spending authorization expires.

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On March 1, 2022, President Biden, in his first State of the Union address, called on Congress to strengthen privacy protections for children, including by banning online platforms from excessive data collection and targeted advertising for children and young people. President Biden called for these heightened protections as part of his unity agenda to address the nation’s mental health crisis, especially the growing concern about the harms of digital technologies, particularly social media, to the mental health and well-being of children and young people. President Biden not only urged for stronger protections for children’s data and privacy, but also for interactive digital service providers to prioritize safety-by-design standards and practices. In his address, President Biden called on online platforms to “prioritize and ensure the health, safety and well-being of children and young people above profit and revenue in the design of their products and services.” President Biden also called for a stop to “discriminatory algorithmic decision-making that limits opportunities” and impacts the mental well-being of children and young people.

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On February 18, 2022, California Assembly Member Evan Low (D) introduced a pair of bills – AB 2871 and AB 2891 – that would extend the duration of the current exemptions in the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) (as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”)) for certain HR data and business-to-business (“B2B”) customer representative personnel data from most of the law’s requirements. The existing temporary “HR” and “B2B” exemptions were first introduced through amendments to the CCPA, and were extended by the CPRA, under which the exemptions will sunset on the CPRA’s compliance deadline, January 1, 2023.

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On March 2, 2022, the Senate unanimously passed the Strengthening American Cybersecurity Act of 2022 (“SACA” or the “Bill”). The Bill is now with the House of Representatives for a vote and, if passed, will be sent to President Biden’s desk for signature.

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On February 17, 2022, the California Privacy Protection Agency (“CPPA”) announced at a board meeting that it will delay the publication of final regulations under the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”). As drafted, the CPRA provides for regulations to be finalized by July 1, 2022, to allow for a six-month compliance window ahead of the law’s January 1, 2023 effective date. However, the CPPA estimated that it will not publish final regulations until the third or fourth quarter of 2022. The CPPA also indicated that it may not issue draft regulations until June 2022. The CPPA cited delays in hiring staff and beginning operations as reasons for the delayed rulemaking process.

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On February 23, 2022, the European Commission adopted a Proposal for a Regulation designed to harmonize rules on the fair access to and use of data generated in the EU across all economic sectors (the “Data Act”). The Data Act is intended to “ensure fairness in the digital environment, stimulate a competitive data market, open opportunities for data-driven innovation and make data more accessible for all.” Importantly, the Data Act applies to all data generated in the EU, not only personal data, which is regulated by the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”).

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On November 14, 2021, the Cyberspace Administration of China (“CAC”) released for public comment its draft Regulations on Network Data Security Management (the “Draft Regulations”). The Draft Regulations are intended to implement portions of three existing laws – the Cybersecurity Law (“CSL”), the Data Security Law (“DSL”) and the Personal Information Protection Law (“PIPL”) (together, the “Three Laws”) – by providing guidance on certain provisions and establishing specific requirements for implementing certain principles contemplated in the Three Laws. In addition, the Draft Regulations add new requirements related to data processing activities. Once effective, the Draft Regulations will impose even greater compliance obligations on companies than the PIPL.

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Stephen Mathias from Kochhar & Co. reports that on December 16, 2021, the Indian Joint Parliamentary Committee (the “JPC”) submitted its report on India’s draft Data Protection Bill (the “Bill”). The Bill is now likely to be passed by Parliament in its next session, beginning in February 2022, and likely will enter into force in the first half of 2022. In its report, the JPC recommended a phased approach to implementing the law, beginning with the appointment of various government officers, such as the Data Protection Authority (“DPA”), with full implementation of the law to be completed within 24 months. The JPC’s report also contained a revised draft of the Bill. Certain key aspects of the revised Bill are summarized below.

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On December 20, 2021, the UK Information Commissioner’s Office (“ICO”) launched a public consultation on its regulatory approach. The consultation involves three separate documents – the ICO’s Regulatory Action Policy (“RAP”), Statutory Guidance on the ICO’s Regulatory Action, and Statutory Guidance on the ICO’s PECR Powers. The RAP sets forth the ICO’s risk-based approach to regulatory action and explains the factors the ICO considers before taking regulatory action, how the ICO works with other regulators, and enforces the legislation for which it is responsible. Together, the three documents illustrate how the ICO aims to enforce information rights for data subjects in the UK.

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On  November 27, 2021, the UAE Cabinet Office enacted its first federal Personal Data Protection Law (Federal Decree Law No. 45 of 2021, the “UAE Data Protection Law”). The UAE Data Protection Law will come into force on January 2, 2022.

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On October 28, 2021, the European Parliament’s Committee on Industry, Research and Energy adopted a draft directive on cybersecurity (“NIS2 Directive”). The NIS2 Directive will broaden the scope of the existing NIS Directive to apply to “important sectors,” such as waste management, postal services, chemicals, food, medical device manufacturers, digital providers and producers of electronics, in addition to “essential sectors.” The NIS2 Directive imposes specific cybersecurity requirements relating to incident response, supply chain security, encryption and vulnerability disclosure obligations. The NIS2 Directive also aims to establish better cooperation and information sharing between EU Member States, and create a common European vulnerability database.

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On October 29, 2021, the Cyberspace Administration of China (“CAC”) released for public comment “Draft Measures on Security Assessment of Cross-border Data Transfer” (“Draft Measures”). The CAC, in its third legislative attempt to build a cross-border data transfer mechanism in China, issued the Draft Measures three days before the November 1, 2021 effective date of the Personal Information Protection Law (“PIPL”).

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During the week of October 4, 2021, California Governor Gavin Newsom signed into law bills amending the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”), California’s data breach notification law and California’s data security law. Additional bills, amending the California Confidentiality of Medical Information Act (“CMIA”) and the California Insurance Code, also were also signed into law. The Governor also signed into law a bill protecting the privacy and security of genetic data processed by direct-to-consumer genetic testing companies and a bill designed to prevent the sale, purchase and use of data obtained by illegal means.

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On October 1, 2021, Florida’s Protecting DNA Privacy Act (the “Act”), took effect. The Act, signed into law by Governor Ron DeSantis on June 29, restricts certain willful collection, retention, analysis and disclosure of the DNA samples or DNA analysis results of persons in Florida without their express consent.

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On September 29 and 30, 2021, the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation convened hearings on how to better protect consumer and children’s privacy.

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On August 29, 2021, a New York City Council bill amending the New York City Administrative Code to address customer data collected by food delivery services from online orders became law after the 30-day period for the mayor to sign or veto lapsed. Effective December 27, 2021, the law will permit restaurants to request customer data from third-party food delivery services and require delivery services to provide, on at least a monthly basis, such customer data until the restaurant “requests to no longer receive such customer data.” Customer data includes name, phone number, email address, delivery address and contents of the order.

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On September 14, 2021, the U.S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce (“E&C Committee”) voted in favor of a legislative recommendation that would create a new Federal Trade Commission privacy bureau as part of the proposed $3.5 trillion federal budget reconciliation package.

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This week, the United Arab Emirates (“UAE”) Minister of State for Artificial Intelligence, Digital Economy and Remote Work Applications (the “Minister”) announced that the UAE would introduce a new federal data protection law (“Data Protection Law”), the first federal law of its kind in the UAE. The Data Protection Law is one of the initiatives to be implemented under the recently published “Principles of the 50,” a charter of 10 strategic principles that will guide the political, economic and social development of the UAE for the next 50 years.

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On August 26, 2021, the UK Department of Culture, Media and Sport (“DCMS”) made news by publishing a document indicating its intent to begin making adequacy decisions for UK data transfers to foreign jurisdictions and by announcing its preferred candidate for the position of new UK Information Commissioner.

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On July 8, 2021, Colorado Governor Jared Polis signed SB21-190, the Colorado Privacy Act (“the Act”), into law, making Colorado the third state to have a comprehensive data privacy law on the books, following California and Virginia. The Colorado House voted 57-7 in favor of the Act on June 7 after it had previously passed the Senate unanimously on May 26. The Senate voted unanimously to adopt the House’s amendments to the Act on June 8. The Act will go into effect on July 1, 2023, with some specific provisions going into effect at later dates.

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